page 2: Horn Pond Mountain-The hills on the east side of town do rise about 200 feet above sea level, but some on the west side are over 300 feet high. The old water works standpipe between High Street and Andrews Road is on land 346 feet above sea level. The top of Horn Pond Mountain is only 287 feet above sea level. see U.S. Geological Survey map, 1956
page 2: Merrimac River-There exists a buried valley running from the Woburn-Wilmington line south to Fresh Pond, in Cambridge, where it joins the Charles River buried valley, which proceeds to Boston Harbor. This valley underlies the areas of Mishawum Lake, the Aberjona River, the Mystic Lakes, Spy Pond, and Fresh Pond. It has a broad terrace about 80 feet below present sea level and is cut by a gorge 60 to 90 feet deeper yet. In 1899 W. O. Crosby suggested that this valley continued north to Lowell and hence drained the preglacial watershed of the present day Merrimac River. Rock outcroppings in the Wedge Pond and Mystic Lakes areas show the valley width to have been in the neighborhood of 2500 feet there. However, the works of I. B. Crosby in 1939 and of others more recently strongly suggest that the buried valley narrows substantially in southern Wilmington and probably does not extend to Lowell. Therefore, most authorities now feel that the pre-glacial Merrimac River did not flow through Winchester.
see Chute, Newton E., Glacial Geology of the Mystic Lakes-Fresh Pond Area U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1061-F pages 187-213, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1959
LaForge, Laurence, Geology of the Boston Area U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 839 page 79, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1932
page 5, et seq.: Pawtuckets-Captain John Smith and Roger Williams referred to the Indians of the Massachusetts Bay area as the Massachuset tribe. Gradually it became the custom to call Indians by the name of the village where they lived. This was especially true of those Indians residing in Praying Villages. (Pawtucket, also called Wame set, was a Praying Village in Lowell made up of Indians from the Pennacook and Massachuset tribes.) This custom was continued by many writers through the 19th century. Today authorities refer to Indians by their tribal names. Winchester's Indians were members of the Massachuset tribe whose territory extended from Salem, Mass. along the coast to just north of Plymouth and inland to Concord, Mass.
see Drake, Samuel Adams, History of Middlesex County page 56, Estes and Lauriet, 1880
Hodge, F. W., Handbook of American Indians page 816, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1912
Smith, Capt. John, A Description of New England page 47, Rand and Avery, 1865
Williams, Roger, A Key Into the Language of America page 22, Russell & Russell, 1963
page 6: Tarratines-The Abnaki Indians of Maine were called Tarratines by the Puritans, a term they learned from the southern New England tribes.
see Hodge, F. W., Handbook of American Indians page 3, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1912
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